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Those numbers or names that pop up when a call comes up? They’re OK as a hint of who’s calling, but THEY PROVE NOTHING

VU#709991: Netatalk contains multiple error and memory management vulnerabilities

Overview
There are six new vulnerabilities in the latest release of Netatalk (3.1.12) that could allow for Remote Code Execution as well as Out-of-bounds Read.
Description
Below are the new CVEs. Per ZDI:
CVE-2022-0194
This vulnerability allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code on affected installations of Netatalk. Authentication is not required to exploit this vulnerability.
The specific flaw exists within the ad_addcomment function. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of the length of user-supplied data prior to copying it to a fixed-length stack-based buffer. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to execute code in the context of root.
CVE-2022-23121
This vulnerability allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code on affected installations of Netatalk. Authentication is not required to exploit this vulnerability.
The specific flaw exists within the parse_entries function. The issue results from the lack of proper error handling when parsing AppleDouble entries. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to execute code in the context of root.
CVE-2022-23122
This vulnerability allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code on affected installations of Netatalk. Authentication is not required to exploit this vulnerability.
The specific flaw exists within the setfilparams function. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of the length of user-supplied data prior to copying it to a fixed-length stack-based buffer. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to execute code in the context of root.
CVE-2022-23124
This vulnerability allows remote attackers to disclose sensitive information on affected installations of Netatalk. Authentication is not required to exploit this vulnerability.
The specific flaw exists within the get_finderinfo method. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, which can result in a read past the end of an allocated buffer. An attacker can leverage this in conjunction with other vulnerabilities to execute arbitrary code in the context of root.
CVE-2022-23125
This vulnerability allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code on affected installations of Netatalk. Authentication is not required to exploit this vulnerability.
The specific flaw exists within the copyapplfile function. When parsing the len element, the process does not properly validate the length of user-supplied data prior to copying it to a fixed-length stack-based buffer. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to execute code in the context of root.
CVE-2022-23123
This vulnerability allows remote attackers to disclose sensitive information on affected installations of Netatalk. Authentication is not required to exploit this vulnerability.
The specific flaw exists within the getdirparams method. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, which can result in a read past the end of an allocated buffer. An attacker can leverage this in conjunction with other vulnerabilities to execute arbitrary code in the context of root.
For more detailed information, please review the Netatalk announcement. Also available for reference are releases detailing the information from ZDI & Western Digital.
Netatalk does not regularly receive security updates, is receiving security research attention, and is difficlut to get right because reverse engineering a proprietary protocol. WD has removed Netatalk code from NAS firmware. We suggest Samba+vfs_fruit for longer term use (more likely to get security updates in a timely way).
(see samba vfs_fruit vuls).
Impact
An unauthenticated, remote attacker can execute arbitrary code on affected installations of Netatalk.
Solution
Netatalk has released version 3.1.13.
Acknowledgements
Thanks to ZDI, Western Digital, and Netatalk for researching and coordinating these vulnerabilities.
This document was written by James Stanley and Art Manion.

VU#434994: Multiple race conditions due to TOCTOU flaws in various UEFI Implementations

Overview
Multiple Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) implementations are vulnerable to code execution in System Management Mode (SMM) by an attacker who gains administrative privileges on the local machine. An attacker can corrupt the memory using Direct Memory Access (DMA) timing attacks that can lead to code execution. These threats are collectively referred to as RingHopper attacks.
Description
The UEFI standard provides an open specification that defines a software interface between an operating system (OS) and the device hardware on the system. UEFI can interface directly with hardware below the OS using SMM, a high-privilege CPU mode. SMM operations are closely managed by the CPU using a dedicated portion of memory called the SMRAM. The SMM can only be entered through System Management Interrupt (SMI) Handlers using a communication buffer. SMI Handlers are essentially a system-call to access the CPU’s SMRAM from its current operating mode, typically Protected Mode.
A race condition involving the access and validation of the SMRAM can be achieved using DMA timing attacks that rely on time-of-use (TOCTOU) conditions. An attacker can use well-timed probing to try and overwrite the contents of SMRAM with arbitrary data, leading to attacker code being executed with the same elevated-privileges available to the CPU (i.e., Ring -2 mode). The asynchronous nature of SMRAM access via DMA controllers enables the attacker to perform such unauthorized access and bypass the verifications normally provided by the SMI Handler API.
The Intel-VT and Intel VT-d technologies provide some protection against DMA attacks using Input-Output Memory Management Unit (IOMMU) to address DMA threats. Although IOMMU can protect from DMA hardware attacks, SMI Handlers vulnerable to RingHopper may still be abused. SMRAM verification involving validation of nested pointers adds even more complexity when analyzing how various SMI Handlers are used in UEFI.
Impact
An attacker with either local or remote administrative privileges can exploit DMA timing attacks to elevate privileges beyond the operating system and execute arbitrary code in SMM mode (Ring -2). These attacks can be invoked from the OS using vulnerable SMI Handlers. In some cases, the vulnerabilities can be triggered in the UEFI early boot phases (as well as sleep and recovery) before the operating system is fully initialized.
A successful attack enables any of the following impacts:
Invalidation or bypass of UEFI security features (SecureBoot, Intel BootGuard).
Installation of persistent software that cannot be easily detected or erased.
Creation of backdoors and back communications channels to exfiltrate sensitive data
Interruption of system execution leading to permanent shutdown.
Because these attacks are against UEFI supported firmware, OS and EDR solutions may have diminished visibility into unauthorized access.
Solution
Install the latest stable version of UEFI firmware provided by your PC vendor or by the reseller of your computing environments. See the links below for resources and updates provided by specific vendors to address these issues.
If your operating system supports automatic or managed updates for firmware, such as Linux Vendor Firmware Service (LVFS), check (fwupdmgr get-updates) and apply the firmware updates provided by LVFS using fwupdmgr update as appropriate.
Acknowledgements
Thanks to the Intel iStare researchers Jonathan Lusky and Benny Zeltser who discovered and reported this vulnerability.
This document was written by Vijay Sarvepalli and Jeffrey S. Havrilla.

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